Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

LCPUFA, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids support many processes in infant growth, cognitive development, visual acuity, and regulation of inflammatory and allergic response. Two families of fatty acids play a role: Omega‑3 (or n3) and omega‑6 (or n6), which differ in the position of the terminal double bond. Linoleic and alpha linolenic acids are essential and represent the omega-3 and omega‑6 families, respectively. In the LCPUFA category, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) represents the omega-3 family being derived from linoleic acid whereas arachidonic acid (ARA) represents the omega-6 family having been derived from alpha linolenic acid in a competitive mechanism of chain elongation and de-saturation (Hadley et al. 2016; Koletzko and Innis. 2005).