Human chorionic gonadotropin

Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone with five isoforms that is produced by the blastocyst. It supports the implantation process by production of progesterone, blood vessel formation including that of the umbilical cord, organ formation and tissue differentiation of the developing embryo and suppresses uterine contractions or maternal immune cells that could interrupt implantation. HCG receptors have been identified in the adult brain and associated with nausea and vomiting especially during the first months of pregnancy. Testing for this hormone is the foundation of most modern pregnancy tests, if they are sensitive enough to measure concentrations of 20 mU/ml (Chasen, 2014, Hill, 2020).

Synonyms: hCG