Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a congenital anomaly were the spinal column does not properly close (icd.who.int, 2020). It is a neural tube defect that has been associated with maternal folate deficiency before and during pregnancy as one contributing factor (EFSA NDA, 2014a). For this reason it is recommended to pre-menopausal women to enrich their diet with folic acid. In some countries flour is fortified nation-wide as preventative measure with good success (McNulty et al., 2019, CDC.gov, 2019).