B-Vitamins include eight water-soluble vitamins interrelated in their function (Kennedy. 2016): Thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), biotin (vitamin B7), folic acid and folate (vitamin B9) and cobalamin (vitamin B12).

Vitamins are essential for human health and cannot be endogenously supplied. B-vitamins influence “cellular functioning, acting as co-enzymes in a vast array of catabolic and anabolic enzymatic reactions. Their collective effects are particularly prevalent to numerous aspects of brain function, including energy production, DNA/RNA synthesis/repair, genomic and non-genomic methylation, and the synthesis of numerous neurochemicals and signaling molecules” (Kennedy. 2016).