Calcium

Ca2+

In humans, this mineral is used predominantly (99%) for formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. It shapes tissue rigidity and elasticity (EFSA NDA. 2015a). In addition, calcium influences the development of hematopoietic cells and the immune system and is involved in muscle and enzyme function (EFSA NDA. 2015a; Institute of Medicine et al. 2011). Calcium is predominantly supplied by the intake of dairy products. Nevertheless, its absorption also depends on vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency can negatively affect calcium and bone metabolism (Institute of Medicine et al. 2011).