Eicosanoids are chemical mediators with immunoregulatory function. Cells release eicosanoids to induce inflammatory responses under pathological conditions. Eicosanoids have diverse effects and mediate typical signs of inflammation (redness, heating, swelling, and pain) and can activate immune cells. Eicosanoids are derived from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3).
Different fatty acids are precursor for eicosanoids and define their respective action. Eicosanoid classes are leukotrienes prostaglandins, prostacyclins and thromboxanes dependent on from what precursor they are formed from (Calder, 2020). “Eicosanoids function to modulate the release of somatostatin, the principal hormone that stimulates cell proliferation and growth. Eicosanoids also have important roles in immunity and inflammation.” (Hadley et al. 2016)