IUPAC name (2S)-2-[[4-[(2-amino-4-oxo-3H-pteridin-6-yl)methylamino]benzoyl]amino]pentanedioic acid
PubChem describes folic acid as "a collective term for pteroylglutamic acids and their oligoglutamic acid conjugates" (PubChem, 2020b). Its metabolic active forms with vitamin function are two folate isoforms (DrugBank Online, 2020-11-06).
Folate is key factor in the synthesis of nucleic acids and consequently, a sign of its deficiency is the development of megaloblastic and macrocytic anaemias (DrugBank Online, 2020-11-06).
Folate deficiency is indicated by plasma concentrations < 5 ng/ml; when these concentrations fall below 2 ng/ml the risk increases for megaloblastic anaemia (DrugBank Online, 2020-11-06).
For intestinal absorption conjugated forms of this water-soluble molecule first need to be converted to folic acid. Then they are readily absorbed and stored predominantly in the liver (DrugBank Online, 2020-11-06).
Folic acid synonyms are manifold and include the terms pteroylglutamic acid, vitamin B9, vitamin Bc, vitamin B11, vitamin M, folacin, folate, and many more (PubChem, 2020b).